The Main Branches of Engineering
Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying technical and scientific knowledge and using natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes.
Historically the main branches of engineering are categorized as follows: Electrical and Electronics Engineering – It is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Electric Power and Machinery – Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltage in both the direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately.
Communications and Control – Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday, passenger-actuated, such as those that run a lift, to the exotic, such as systems for keeping spacecraft on course. Control systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships, in military fire-control systems, in power transmission and distribution, in automated manufacturing, and in robotics.
Mechanical Engineering – The design of physical and mechanical systems, such as engines, power trains, kinematic chains, vibration isolation equipment. This field is divided into machinery, mechanisms, materials, hydraulics, and pneumatics; and heat as applied to engines, work and energy, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning.
Safety Engineering – This field has as its objects the prevention of accidents. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous occupations. Engineering is a key driver of human development. In a modem world it is a well respected profession.
Exercise 8. Find the following words and word combinations in the text “Engineering”.
Технические и научные знания; опасный; материальные ресурсы; обеспечивать материалами; применение; производство; инженер по технике безопасности; крайне высокое напряжение; постоянный ток; потери мощности; направленное на пассажира; в значительной степени; противопожарная система; трансмиссия; виброзащитное оборудование; предотвращение; защищать; глубокоуважаемый; переменный ток.
Now use some of expressions from this list to complete the following sentences:
1) Nowadays the profession of an engineer is a …… one.
2) A skilled engineer has a solid base of …….
3) ……. is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
4) Did you not notice a safety symbol "Caution, risk of electric shock"? Do you know that it means……?
5) The smoke detector is one of the devices of ……. that are recommended for homes.
6) …… also assists in designing machinery, factories, ships, and roads, suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the possibility of accident.
Exercise 9. Answer the questions to the text “Engineering”.
1) What is engineering? What is the function of this special field?
2) What branches of engineering do you know? Try to describe each of them.
3) What do you think what engineering branch is the most important one?
4) Engineer is a respected profession, isn’t it?
5) Why did you choose your specialty?
Exercise 10. Make these sentences negative and interrogative.
1) He passes some exams to enter the University.
2) There are some industrial plants where the computers use for control.
3) Engineers work with some electrical devices.
4) Give me something to fill my paper out.
5) I met that safety engineer somewhere before.
6) Someone left the switched light on in the office yesterday.
7) There are some engineering branches of current importance.
8) Some mechanical engineers specialize in particular types of machine.
9) Electronic engineer designs circuits to perform some specific tasks.
10) We have some new equipment to improve the quality of their work.
Exercise 11. Rewrite the following sentences using such adverbs as few, a few, little, a little.
1) His working day is so busy that he doesn’t have much time for relaxation.
2) Computer engineers told him about new hardware programs for three hours.
3) She didn’t have many English books at home, so she had to go to the library.
4) There were some new apparatus at the plant, but it didn’t take too much time for an engineer to install them.
5) I don’t need much oil to cover the moving parts.
6) He keeps trying, although he doesn’t have much chance of success.
7) The workers have twenty or thirty minutes to have a dinner.
8) Many students aren’t really hard-working.
9) There aren’t many current trends in electronics engineering.
10) Some graduates are sent for one or two months to industrial enterprises to get some practical know-how.
Exercise 12. Translate the sentences into English using active vocabulary of the lesson.
1) Инженеры компьютерщики занимаются разработкой компьютеров и программных систем.
2) Квалифицированный инженер обладает хорошими техническими и научными знаниями.
3) На современном этапе развития техники и науки авиационно-космическая индустрия является самой быстроразвивающейся.
4) Машиностроение связано с разработкой физико-механический систем таких как, двигатели, трансмиссия, кинематические цепи, виброзащитное оборудование и т.д.
5) Некоторые рабочие не соблюдают правила техники безопасности.
6) Автоматизированное производство и робототехника напрямую зависит от работы систем контроля.
7) Инженерное дело – основной двигатель прогресса.
Exercise 13. Speak on.
1) What new areas of engineering have you already known?
2) Which engineering field would you choose to work on in the future?