How People Influence Connectivity Among Ecosystems
In June 2008 Special Issue of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, titled УContinental-scale ecology in an increasingly connected world,Ф ecologist discuss how human influences interact with natural processes to influence connectivity at the continental scale. The authors conclude that networks of large-scale experiments are needed to predict long-term ecological change.
УWe know that the world has always been connected via a common atmosphere and the movement of water,Ф says Debra Peters, an author in the issue and a scientist with the United States Department of AgricultureТs Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS). УThe world is also becoming highly interconnected through the movement of people and the transport of goods locally to globally. Among ecologists, there is an increasing realization that these connections can have profound influences on the long-term dynamics of ecological systems.Ф
The transport of many types of materials, including gases, minerals and even organisms, can affect natural systems. This movement results in Уgreenlash,Ф which occurs when environmental changes localized to a small geographic area have far-reaching effects in other areas. For example, a drought in the 1930s caused small-scale farmers to abandon their farms across the U.S. Midwest. The absence of crops intensified local soil erosion, leading to powerful dust storms. Large amounts of wind-swept dust traveled across the continent, causing the infamous Dust Bowl and affecting air quality, public health and patterns of human settlement throughout the country. Because of increasing globalization, people often inadvertently introduce non-native plants, animals and diseases into new locations. Invasive species and pathogens, such as fire ants from South America and the SARS virus from China, can create large, expensive problems: the U.S. currently spends over $120 billion per year on measures to prevent and eradicate invasive species. Understanding ecosystem connectivity across a range of scales - from local to regional to continental - will help scientists predict where invasive species are likely to go next.
The authors agree that field ecology studies should focus on long-term sampling networks that encompass a range of geographical scales. Integrating data from existing and developing networks, such as the National Science FoundationТs Long Term Ecological Research network (LTER) and NSFТs National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), will lead to a level of power for ecological comparison unparalleled by any one experiment.
УTo draw conclusions about the consequences of increasing connectivity, we need to provide information about processes that span a vast scale of space and time,Ф says David Schimel, an author in the issue and the chief executive officer of the NEON project. УOur observations will characterize ecological processes from the genomic to the continental and document changes from seconds to decades.Ф
Additionally, the authors suggest that long-term studies should include data from social and behavioral science to allow incorporation of human movement patterns into their scientific models. Ecologists hope that understanding the patterns of connectivity within and among ecosystems will lead to more accurate predictions of future ecological change.
Science Daily (2700)
to abandon покидать
advertent [əd′və:tənt] чуткий, внимательный
to affect вли€ть
ant [ænt] муравей
consequences [′kənsikwəns] последствие
crops, pl злаковые культуры
to predict предсказывать, прогнозировать
network [′netwə:k] сеть
20.What is the meaning of the following words with different preffixes?
interact,interconnected, inadvertently, non-native, unparalleled, infamous.
21. Translate the following word combinations with complex words:
continental-scale ecology, large-scale experiments, long-term ecological change, far-reaching effects, Midwest, long-term dynamics, small-scale farmers, wind-swept dust, long-term studies.
22. Pair the words from list 1 with those from list 2:
1) human, ecological, public, air, invasive, scientific, soil, to provide
2) health, species, model, erosion, influence, information, system, quality
23. Complete the following sentences with English words and expressions:
1. The authors conclude что необходима сеть широкомасштабных экспериментов, дл€ того чтобы прогнозировать long-term ecological change. 2. —реди экологов, there is an increasing realization that эти св€зи могут иметь большое вли€ние на the long-term dynamics экологических систем. 3. ѕеревозка многих видов of materials, включа€ gases, minerals and even organisms, может оказать вли€ние (повли€ть) natural systems. 4. «асуха 30-х стала причиной того, что мелкие фермеры to abandon their farms across the U.S. Midwest. 5. The absence of crops усилило эрозию почв местности, leading к мощным пылевым бур€м. 6. The U.S. currently тратит более 120 миллионов долларов в год on measures to prevent and eradicate агрессивные виды. 7. Ёкологи надеютс€, что understanding the patterns of connectivity within and among ecosystems will lead to более точным прогнозам будущих экологических изменений.
24. Explain in Russian the meaning of the following English expression:
25. Answer the questions:
1. What do ecologists discuss nowadays? 2. Why is the world becoming highly interconnected? 3. What can affect natural systems? 4. What did the drought of the 1930s cause in the U.S. Midwest? 5. What can create large, expensive problems in the U.S.? 6. How much money does the U.S. currently spend per year on measures to prevent and eradicate invasive species? 7. What do ecologists suggest?